Associate Professor
G56 Martha Van Rensselaer
Ithaca, New York
Human Development

Research in the Experience and Cognition lab explores the mind in context: how linguistic, cultural, and bodily experiences influence the ways people think, feel, learn, and make decisions, on multiple timescales. By studying how people with different experiences come to think differently, we can better understand the processes by which interactions with the physical and social world enable people to realize and exceed their innate cognitive endowments.

We use a variety of methods: from analyses of spontaneous gesture to Virtual Reality, multimodal psychophysics, neuroimaging (fMRI, EEG), studies in brain injury patients, and neurostimulation (TMS, tDCS). To track effects of experience over time, we have studied infants and children as well as adults. To test cognitive diversity across languages and cultures, my collaborators and I have conducted fieldwork on 5 continents.

To identify experiential factors that shape our minds, one strategy we use is to test for systematic differences in brain or behavior caused by separable streams of physical and social experience: that is, to test for linguistic relativity, cultural relativity, and what I call by analogy bodily relativity.

I have developed new experimental methods and theoretical frameworks for investigating how experience shapes our brains and minds. These include a psychophysical paradigm for testing linguistic relativity without using words, a new theory of how culture shapes our conceptions of time, and a proposal about relationships between body and mind, the body-specificity hypothesis, which has now been validated by more than 60 published studies on the neural and cognitive bases of language, memory, mental imagery, object representation, and emotion.

This research demonstrates the diversity of the human cognitive repertoire. At the same time, it suggests a reconciliation between “universalist” and “relativist” views. Experience shapes our brains and minds through processes of learning and inference that may be universal. Cognitive diversity arises when these processes operate in distinctive physical and social contexts.

Beyond revealing the processes by which brains and minds develop and change, explorations of cognitive diversity can lead to a more flexible and inclusive understanding of human nature – an understanding that will emerge from studying a broader spectrum of humans than has been represented by the canon of cognitive science.

Brookshire, G. & Casasanto, D. (2018). Approach motivation in human cerebral cortexPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2017-0141

Casasanto, D. (2017). Sleight of HandScience357, 1246.

Brookshire, G., Lu, J., Nusbaum, H.C., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Casasanto, D. (2017). Visual cortex entrains to sign languageProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(24), 6352-6357.

Casasanto, D. (2017). Relationships between language and cognition. In B. Dancygier (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp. 19-37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Casasanto, D. (2016). Linguistic relativity. In N. Riemer (Ed.), Routledge handbook of semantics (pp. 158-174). New York: Routledge.

Casasanto, D., & Lupyan, G. (2015). All concepts are ad hoc concepts. In E. Margolis & S. Laurence (Eds.), The conceptual mind: New directions in the study of concepts (pp. 543-566). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Casasanto, D., & Bottini, R. (2014). Mirror-reading can reverse the flow of timeJournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(2), 473-9.

de la Fuente, J., Santiago, J., Román, A., Dumitrache, C., & Casasanto, D. (2014). When you think about it, the past is in front of you: How culture shapes spatial conceptions of timePsychological Science, 25(9), 1682-1690.

Casasanto, D. (2014). Bodily relativity. In L. Shapiro (Ed.), Routledge handbook of embodied cognition (pp. 108-117). New York: Routledge.

Dolscheid, S., Hunnius, S., Casasanto, D., & Majid, A. (2014). Prelinguistic infants are sensitive to space-pitch associations found across culturesPsychological Science25(6), 1256-1261.

Dolscheid, S., Shayan, S., Majid, A., & Casasanto, D. (2013). The thickness of musical pitch: Psychophysical evidence for linguistic relativityPsychological Science24(5), 613–621.

Brookshire, G., & Casasanto, D. (2012). Motivation and motor control: Hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handednessPLoS ONE, 7(4): e36036. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036036

Jasmin, K., & Casasanto, D. (2012). The QWERTY effect: How typing shapes the meanings of wordsPsychonomic Bulletin and Review, 19(3), 499-504.


Casasanto, D., & Henetz, T. (2012). Handedness shapes children's abstract conceptsCognitive Science, 36, 359–372.

Casasanto, D. (2011). Different bodies, different minds: The body-specificity of language and thoughtCurrent Directions in Psychological Science, 20(6), 378–383.

Casasanto, D., & Chrysikou, E.G. (2011). When left is "right": Motor fluency shapes abstract conceptsPsychological Science, 22(4), 419-422.

Willems, R.M., Labruna, L., D’Esposito, M., Ivry, R., & Casasanto, D. (2011). A functional role for the motor system in language understanding: Evidence from theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulationPsychological Science, 22(7), 849–854.

Willems, R. M., Hagoort, P., & Casasanto, D. (2010). Body-specific representations of action verbs: Neural evidence from right- and left-handersPsychological Science, 21(1), 67-74.

Casasanto, D., Fotakopoulou, O., & Boroditsky, L. (2010). Space and time in the child's mind: Evidence for a cross-dimensional asymmetryCognitive Science, 34, 387-405.


Casasanto, D., & Dijkstra, K. (2010). Motor action and emotional memoryCognition, 115(1), 179-185.

Casasanto, D., & Jasmin, K. (2010). Good and bad in the hands of politicians: Spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speechPLoS ONE, 5(7): e11805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011805

Casasanto, D. (2009). Embodiment of abstract concepts: Good and bad in right- and left-handersJournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138(3), 351-367.

Casasanto, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2008). Time in the mind: Using space to think about timeCognition, 106, 579-593.


Casasanto, D. (2008). Who's afraid of the Big Bad Whorf? Cross-linguistic differences in temporal language and thoughtLanguage Learning, 58(1), 63-79.


Casasanto, D. (2005). Crying "Whorf"Science, 307, 1721-1722.

Casasanto is the Scientific Director and Co-Founder of THE THINK TANK, a mobile neuroscience lab driven to accelerate diverse participation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). 

TEDx Talk, The myth of the universal mind

HD 2200 Human Brain and Mind: Introduction to cognitive neuroscience. 

Casasanto received his Ph.D. in Brain and Cognitive Sciences from MIT in 2005.