PAM and HCP Faculty Advising

Students will be assigned a faculty advisor to discuss student progress, academic performance, planning for electives, summer internships, post graduate studies, employment, and so on. Optimistically the student and faculty will be able to create a sufficient relationship so that the faculty can write letters of recommendation and give personal references for students.

You should plan to meet with your faculty advisor at least once per semester to discuss your academic progress and plans for the future.  These semi-annual meetings should enable the faculty advisor and student to form a sufficiently deep relationship that faculty can write letters of recommendation on behalf of students.

  1. You can find your faculty advisor in Student Center.
  2. To request an advisor change, contact Jen Davis.  If you know who you would like to have as a faculty advisor, check with that person to make sure they agree, and then let Jen know whom you have selected.
  3. If you have not been assigned a PAM faculty advisor, contact Jen Davis and let her know.

College Advising and Career Advising
Additionally, students may utilize their CHE advisors for questions and guidance. Topics that are most relevant to the Career Advisors include switching majors, leaves of absence, study abroad, academic difficulties, health problems, and so on. However, the CHE advisors are also quite knowledgeable about curriculum requirements.

All inquiries to do with the details of the curriculum sheets, and navigating department and college academic requirements should be directed to PAM Central Advising.

Central advising will handle all advising questions that have to do with navigating through the department, college, and university academic requirements.

For central advising help contact:
Director of Undergraduate Studies, Thomas Evans, 2309A MVR.
Open Office Hours: 

Mondays: 4:45-5:30 PM

Tuesdays: 8:30-11:30 AM

Wednesdays: 4:45-5:30 PM

To schedule an appointment click here.

Undergraduate Coordinator, Jen Davis, 2301 MVR
Email: pam_major@cornell.edu | phone: 607-255-1199
Office Hours: 8am-4pm; Friday 8am-3:30pm.

All inquiries to do with the details of the curriculum sheets, and navigating department and college academic requirements should be directed to HCP Central Advising. 

Central advising will handle all advising questions that have to do with navigating through the department, college, and university academic requirements.

For central advising help contact:
HCP Advisor, Brandon Tripp, 419 Kennedy
Email: hcpmajor@cornell.edu
Office Hours: By Appointment

Undergraduate Coordinator, Jen Davis, 2301 MVR
Email: hcpmajor@cornell.edu  | phone: 607-255-1199
Office Hours: 8am-4pm; Friday 8am-3:30pm.

For inquiries regarding pre-med requirements please make an appointment with a pre-health advisor in the Human Ecology Office of Student and Career Development, by calling 607-255-2532.

Switching to the HCP Major
Our Admissions and Registrar Offices are currently working to update campus systems so students can officially switch to the major.  Students will be able to switch to the HCP Major effective Fall 2019 at the latest.   Once officially available, Human Ecology students will be able to switch via Change of Major Form available on the CHE Registrar Website.  Students from other Cornell Colleges will need to apply to internal transfer via the Human Ecology Admissions Office.  Questions regarding the Internal Transfer process should be directed to the Human Ecology Admissions Office.

 

Students earn 3 Human Ecology credits for the Practicing Medicine program.

NOTE: None of the credits count for PAM credit.

I.A.1. Natural Science Requirement

All students must take at least 6 credits (two courses) in the natural sciences.  

The first course must be in one of the following:

•    AP Biology Score of 5 
•    BIOG 1140
•    BIOG 1440 or BIOG 1445
•    BIOMG 1350 
•    BIOEE 1610

•    AP Chemistry Score of 5 
•    CHEM 1560 or CHEM 2070
•    CHEM 2080
•    AP Physics Score of 5 
•    PHYS 1101 or PHYS 2207
•    PHYS 1102 or PHYS 2208 

NOTE: If AP credit is not used to satisfy this requirement, then students entering Cornell as freshmen MUST complete the natural sciences requirement at Cornell.
NOTE: Human Ecology courses that have a PBS-HE Course Distribution can count towards both the Natural science requirement and towards the required 9 credits of HUMEC outside of the major (see College Requirements).
 

I.B. Social Sciences

Students must complete both an introduction to microeconomics (ECON1110) and an introduction to sociology course (DSOC 1101 or SOC 1101).

Because there is a four course economics sequence in PAM, it is important to take ECON 1110 as soon as possible. Delaying ECON 1110 will delay all subsequent courses in the economics sequence, and will delay when you can begin taking upper level PAM electives.
 

I.C. Humanities

PAM students are required to take at least one humanities course from a list on the curriculum sheets. The list includes Ethics courses. Unfortunately, many of these courses are taught infrequently or not at all. As long as ethics is the dominant topic in the course, course petitions will be approved to replace the course. The following list of courses have been approved to satisfy the ethics requirement. If students want to use an ethics class that is not on the approved list, a curriculum waiver form must be submitted.

1.    BSOC 2051 / STS 2051 Ethical Issues in Health and Medicine
2.    BSOC 2061/ STS 2061/ PHIL 2460 Ethics and the Environment
3.    BSOC 4071 Law, Science and Public Values
4.    COMM 4300 Ethics in New Media, Technology, and Communication 
5.    CRP 3011 Ethics, Development, and Globalization
6.    NTRES 3320 Intro to Ethics and the Environment
7.    ILRLR 3830 Workers Rights as Human Rights
8.    ILRLR 4820 Ethics at Work 
9.    ILRLR 4880 Justice 
10.    INFO 1200 Information, Ethics, Law, and Policy 
11.    INFO 2750 Ethical Issues in Intelligent Autonomous Systems 
12.    PHIL 1440 Ethics of Eating 
13.    PHIL 1450 Contemporary Moral Issues 
14.    PHIL 2410 Ethics 
15.    PHIL 2420 Social and Political Philosophy 
16.    PHIL 2450 Ethics and Health Care 
17.    PHIL 3410 Ethical Theory
18.    PHIL 3450 Bioethics 

I.D. Written Communications

PAM freshmen MUST take a First Year Writing Seminar during each of their first two semesters. There are NO exceptions. If you fail to take these two courses you will be put on written academic warning.

I.E Quantitative and Analytical
There are essentially two requirements:
First, PAM student must take 3 credits of Cornell math. This requirement can be satisfied with a score of 4 or 5 on the AP Calculus BC exam, or by taking any Cornell MATH course (except MATH 1000, MATH 1710, or MATH 1600).

Second, PAM students must take both PAM 2101 and PAM 3100. This two course sequence is designed especially for PAM students to take during their sophomore year. PAM 2101 is offered in the fall and PAM 3100 is in the spring. You must complete PAM 3100 by spring of your sophomore year or within one year of transferring into PAM. PAM majors should NOT take PAM 2100.

If you are a transfer student into PAM and have already taken an introductory statistics course, you are not required to take PAM 2101. However, you should complete a Curriculum Waiver form.

NOTE: Though both PAM 2101 and PAM 3100 are required, they are part of the math sequence and do not count towards the 40 PAM credits you require to graduate. That is, you must take PAM 2101 and PAM 3100, plus an additional 40 credits.

I.F. Additional Credits
Students must take 12 additional credits.

First, students must take GOVT 1111.

Second, student must take either PSYCH 1101 or HD 1150.

Third, student must take 6 additional credits in any language course, or any course with the Course Distribution PBS, SBA, KCM, MQR, LA, CA, or HA.

Note: HD 1150 will count towards meeting this requirement, and because it is an HD course, it will also count towards meeting the 9 HUMEC credits outside of the major ( see College Requirements).

II. Requirements of the Major

II.A.1 Minimum PAM Credit Requirements
Students must complete a minimum of 40 PAM credits (not including PAM 2101 and PAM 3100).

II.A.2. PAM Required Courses
Students must take PAM 2000, PAM 2030, PAM 2040, PAM 2300, and PAM 3300.

II.A.3. PAM Concentration Requirements
In addition to the above PAM math and core PAM courses, students must take a minimum of 18 credits of 3000 or 4000 level PAM classes (i.e PAM 3100 and PAM 3300 cannot count toward the 18 credits at the 3000 and 4000 level).The upper level PAM electives are the heart of the PAM major. For the first two years of study students are taking introductory and intermediate level courses, building a foundation of knowledge, so that they have the tools to tackle actual policy analysis (predicting and measuring how humans respond to changing laws, rules, and constraints). To a large extent the tools are useful for analyzing policy in many different areas. Students can select the areas that they are most interested in and build a concentrated area of focus, or they may select a diverse set of electives.

These 18 credits must be standard courses on the Ithaca campus. Therefore, special studies (4000, 4010, 4020) , the honors courses (4980, 4990), and Cornell-In-Washington courses (4060) do not count towards the 18 credits. You may want to discuss with your faculty advisor which PAM electives you select to best meet your interests, and future academic and career plans.

II.A.4. Additional PAM Credits
Students must complete an additional 3 credits in PAM. These additional credits can come from essentially any PAM class. That is, all 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 level classes count. Special studies count, except PAM 4030. Cornell-in-Washington counts. Honors courses count. Even ECON 1120 counts. 

NOTE: PAM 1200 Rose Scholars Program does not count here. PAM 1200 can only count as an elective.

College Requirement
Students must satisfy college requirements.

First, students must complete 9 credits in Human Ecology, outside of the major. Select any DEA, HD, FSAD, or NS courses to complete this requirement.  HE non-departmental courses do not count toward the 9 Human Ecology credits outside of the major.

Second, student must complete a minimum of 43 credits in Human Ecology. HE non-departmental courses at the 2000-level and below do not count toward the 43 Human Ecology credits.

NOTE: There are limits on how many special study credits can count in each category. You should review the curriculum sheet carefully for this information.

Suggested Order of Core PAM Classes

Freshmen Fall Semester
PAM 2300 - Introduction to Policy Analysis
ECON 1110 - Introduction to Microeconomics
First Year Writing Seminar

Freshmen Spring Semester
PAM 2000 - Intermediate Microeconomics
PAM 2030 - Population and Public Policy
First Year Writing Seminar

Sophomore Fall Semester
PAM 2101 - Introduction to Statistics for PAM Majors
PAM 2040 - Economics of the Public Sector

Sophomore Spring Semester
PAM 3100 - Multiple Regression Analysis
PAM 3300 - Cost Benefits Analysis

Notes:

  1. There is a natural order to economics based PAM courses: ECON 1110, PAM 2000, PAM 2040, PAM 3300. It will be useful to take these courses in sequential semesters.
  2. First year writing seminars MUST be taken in during the first year.
  3. PAM 2300 is only offered in the fall; it is a great introduction to the field of policy analysis.
  4. There is a natural order to statistics based PAM courses: PAM 2101, PAM 3100. There are other Introduction to Statistics across the university (notably PAM 2100). However, PAM 2101 is especially designed for PAM majors.
  5. The PAM program was designed with the idea that students would first take a large cross-section of introductory social science courses early in the program. Therefore, students should try and take Introduction to Sociology, Introduction to Psychology and Introduction to Government during the first two years.
  6. It would be useful to take the Cornell math course early in the program. A math course will help with the intermediate level core PAM courses.
  7. After taking the core PAM courses, students will be ready to handle the 3000 and 4000 level PAM electives.

The PAM undergraduate curriculum committee, and PAM faculty, have put a lot of thought into designing a strong undergraduate program.  It is recommended that you take all of the core requirements exactly as they are.

However, in very exceptional circumstances (such as junior transfer, medical leave, and so on), it may be extremely inconvenient to take exactly the required core classes.  In these circumstances it may be possible to find alternative courses at Cornell that cover similar material to the PAM core classes.  Please email the Director of Undergraduate Studies or attend his office hours to discuss your options.

Your advisement report shows all of the requirements that you have completed, and those you need to satisfy to graduate, based on the curriculum sheet requirements. This report will update as soon as any changes are made to your enrollment. Advisement report should match your curriculum sheet requirements. If your advisement report does not match your curriculum sheet, please notify the CHE Registrar’s Office to resolve.

Yes!
There is a new curriculum sheet for every new matriculating freshmen class.  Though changes to each year’s curriculum sheet are typically small, there may be some advantage to switching.

You are permitted to change to a newer curriculum sheet (you are not permitted to switch to an older curriculum sheet).

Simply let Lori Asperschlager (law32), the Assistant Registrar, know that you want to change.

NOTE: Once you switch to a newer curriculum sheet, you are NOT permitted to switch back.  Be sure before you make a change.

Students must earn a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.0 (C) or better to graduate.

Students who fall below 2.0 cumulatively or during a semester are subject to academic action.

There are no minimum grade requirements for any single PAM course (other than passing) as long as you satisfy the cumulative GPA requirements.

Some classes use a grading system of S/U (S – Satisfactory; U-Unsatisfactory) rather than the standard letter grades. 

Students may have the option in some classes to select either the standard letter grading or S/U.  There is no GPA impact from using S/U.  If you achieve an S you will get the full credits from the class, but if you receive a U you receive no credits.

Typically an S will be given for grades that would have been C- or above.

You must decide within the first 57 calendar days of the semester which grading option you are using (note that some classes may not have an option).  The deadline for changing the course grading option is the same as the deadline for dropping a class.  (Check the CHE registrar calendar).

NOTE: For those on the 2016-2017 or earlier curriculum sheet, you are NOT permitted to select the S/U option for any of required courses in Category I or II of your curriculum sheet, unless it is the only option offered for the class. For those on the 2017-2018 curriculum sheet and later, you are NOT permitted to select the S/U option for any required courses in the requirements 1-13, unless it is the only option offered for the class.

NOTE: S/Us MAY only be used for the 9 HE Credits outside the major and for electives. Students may apply no more than 12 credits of S/U towards graduation requirements. If a required course is only offered S/U, it will not count towards this limit. Students may take more S/Us if they choose, but the additional credit will not be applied towards graduation. 

BEWARE: A temptation for students is to take a class as S/U, but then not put forth full effort.  Every spring semester there is at least one graduating senior who takes a course S/U, ends up with a U because they didn’t try hard enough, and doesn’t graduate.

Students in the college are permitted to enroll in 18 credit hours per term.  Students with 2 terms of study at Cornell, a minimum GPA of 3.30, and that are in Good Standing with the College may petition to take up to 22 credits per semester.  Petitions to take more then 18 credits are accepted only during the Add/Drop period in the term in which the additional credits will be taken. No petition to take more then 18 credits will be accepted during the pre-enrollment period.  

Petitions are available online.

Cornell offers a wide range of undergraduate minors.

There are no restrictions from PAM on what minors they can earn.

PAM has no involvement in other department’s minors.  If you decide to minor in another department and take all of the requisite courses, you will earn that minor.  Officially, PAM does not need to know.

You may want to discuss with your PAM faculty advisor whether you should pursue a minor.
NOTE: PAM will not change PAM major requirements to facilitate earning a minor in another department.

You cannot complete a double major within Human Ecology.

Through your electives you may earn all the required credits for an additional Human Ecology major if you desire, but nothing on your final transcript will indicate that you have double majored.

Although you cannot double major within Human Ecology, the University does have a Concurrent Degree Program. The Concurrent Degree Program provides students the opportunity to complete degrees in two separate Cornell Colleges simultaneously. Contact the Student Development Office in MVR 172, or the Office of Internal Transfer and Concurrent Degrees for more information.

You are permitted to add standard classes during the first 15 calendar days of the semester.

You are permitted to drop classes during the first 57 calendar days of the semester without anything showing up on your transcript.

You are permitted to drop classes after the deadline; however, a grade of W will be recorded on your transcript. W has no effect on your GPA.

There is a manual Add/Drop form that can override the electronic system.  It must be signed by the instructor in the class you are trying to enroll in or drop.

You should see the College Registrar’s website for the most up to date information on semester Add/Drop dates.

PAM undergraduates are encouraged to participate in research if they are interested. There are opportunities in PAM, Human Ecology, and the rest of the University.

There is no central clearinghouse or placement services for research. You will have to use your initiative to find opportunities. Here are some tips for starting your research journey:

  1. Research is about discovering something new. It is difficult…and exhilarating. You should take the same approach necessary for success in research to discover research opportunities. Faculty are just as interested in finding good research assistants as you are in finding opportunities: a good match benefits both the faculty and student. Be proactive in your search, and exhibit the traits that faculty will find valuable.
  2. Read about faculty research on their web pages and make a list of faculty members whose work interests you. Think about the types of projects that match your interests and skills.
  3. Discuss your interests with your faculty advisor or instructor of relevant courses.
  4. Meet with the Director of Undergraduate Studies to see if they know about any research opportunities in the department.
  5. Email professors whose research interests you and ask to meet with them. Do not send mass e-mails to professors. Send individual messages to faculty members and mention the work that they do and explain how it matches your interests. They need to know that you have done your homework about their program.
  6. Contact faculty members well in advance. Try to connect with faculty members the semester before you wish to start. Make a good impression on your faculty instructors and inquire about research opportunities they know about.
  7. Prepare a research resume with your local contact information to give to the professor for later reference. List relevant courses and grades, your career goals, and any other experiences you have had.
  8. Be familiar with the professor's research prior to meeting with them. Read one or more of their papers so that you are familiar with the general types of research approaches and methods that are used.
  9. Be sure you are seriously interested in getting involved in research. Faculty want students with a strong work ethic, who are organized and willing to work both independently and as a team member. They will need you to stay involved throughout the whole semester, so time management and commitment are key for being accepted into a research program.
  10. Take the courses that will enhance your credentials to join a research program.
  11. There are two different ways that you can be compensated for research: credit and pay. Typically students do research for credit.

Special studies credits are typically used for work you do that is not a standard didactic course.  For example, if you complete a directed reading course with a professor, work as a teaching assistant, or work as a research assistant you can apply for special studies credits.

A maximum of 12 special studies credits total, from any college, can be applied towards graduation requirements. PAM special studies credits cannot apply toward the 3000/4000 level PAM electives requirement. However, PAM 4000, 4010, or 4020 can apply toward the additional PAM electives requirement.  

Students may register for between 1 and 3 credits per semester of PAM 4000 or 4010, or 1 credit per semester of PAM 4020.  Registration for PAM 4030 may not exceed 5 credit hours per semester. A minimum of 3 hours per week of work are required for each earned credit.  Consult your special studies instructor to determine the learning objective, activities, and product of the Special Studies. To enroll in PAM 4000, 4010, or 4020 complete the online Special Studies Form, to be reviewed by the faculty member, the DUS, and the Registrar.  Or, to enroll in PAM 4030 complete the paper HE 4030 TA Form, and obtain appropriate signatures. 

PAM 4000: Directed Readings
For study that predominately involves library research and independent readings.  The student and faculty instructor should agree on the scope of the work, and plan on the direction of the readings.  The student and faculty should meet bi-weekly to discuss the student’s progress and direction for the following weeks.  At a minimum the student is expected to produce both a midterm and final written research paper detailing the readings and findings.  However, the faculty instructor has the flexibility to require more frequent written reports if so desired.

PAM 4010: Empirical Research
For study that predominately involves data collection and analysis.  The student and faculty instructor should agree on the scope of the work, and the plan for the empirical research.  The student and faculty should meet bi-weekly to discuss the student’s progress and direction for the following weeks.  At a minimum the student is expected to produce both a midterm and final written research paper detailing the readings and findings.  However, the faculty instructor has the flexibility to require more frequent written reports if so desired. 

PAM 4020: Supervised Fieldwork
For study that predominantly involves both responsible participation in a community setting and reflection on that experience through discussion, reading, and writing.  Academic credit is awarded for this integration of theory and practice.  Students may register for 1 credit of PAM 4020 with their faculty advisor during the semester after they have completed an internship.  Internships are an invaluable learning experience, and in many instances are useful to gain career skills.  However, in order to earn PAM credit there must be distinct policy analysis academic content to the work.  The academic content should involve the evaluation of public policy.  Additionally, in order to earn credit, students must write and submit a report to their faculty advisor that formally presents the completed filed work, and the policy analysis conclusions.

PAM 4030: Teaching Apprenticeship
For study that predominantly involves leading discussion sections or demonstrations, preparing items for course exams, grading, or participating in critiques of student work.  Any grading or critiques of student work completed by the TA must be done under close supervision of the course instructor. Teaching assistants must have at least 1 to 2 hours of weekly group or individual meetings with course instructor. Students must have received a B+ or higher in the course prior to applying to be the course TA. To participate in Teaching Apprenticeship, students must have at least a 3.0 GPA at Cornell, junior or senior status, and have completed PAM 2300. Students cannot TA the same course for credit more than once. PAM 4030 credits may not be used toward the additional PAM electives requirement.  PAM 4030 may apply as an elective toward the 120 credits needed to graduate.

PAM students are welcome to participate in the Cornell-in-Washington program.  You should apply for the program directly.  You can find information on their website.

There has been some confusion regarding how many credits you get for CIW.  You earn a total of 15 Cornell credits.  8 of these credits can count as PAM credits and the rest are elective credits.

BEWARE: None of the 8 PAM credits count towards the II.B or II.C. requirements for those following the 2016-2017 curriculum sheet and earlier, not even PAM 4060. The only way the PAM credits count is towards the II.D. ‘Additional PAM Credits’ requirement.  For those following the 2017-2018 curriculum sheet and later, none of the 8 PAM credits count towards requirements 1 & 2, not even PAM 4060. The only way the PAM credits count is towards requirement 3 ‘Additional PAM Electives.’ Therefore, you must still take 18 PAM credits at the 3000/4000, even if you take PAM 4060, and even though you get 8 PAM credits.

Students earn 15 Human Ecology credits for the Capital semester.  8 of the credits count as Human Ecology credits outside of the major.

NOTE: None of the credits count for PAM credit.

Students who complete study abroad are permitted to count 15 credits towards their graduation requirements.  These credits are all counted as elective credits.  If you take a class while abroad you think could meet other requirements, you should complete a Curriculum Waiver form. 

NOTE: You won’t get PAM credits for any course you take while abroad.

In order to graduate you must earn 2 PE credits.  You can take these 2 credits in any semester.

NOTE: PE credits don’t count towards the minimum 12 credits that you must enroll in each semester to be considered a full time student.

NOTE: PE credits don’t count towards the 120 credits you need to graduate.

The College Registrar records, maintains, and handles the details for Advanced Placement (AP) credit.

You should search under the Requirements and Policies section of the Registrar’s website for information on AP credits. 

You are permitted to use a total of 15 AP and in absentia credit towards your graduation requirements.  You will have to self-report your AP credits.  Please see the CHE registrar’s website for more details.

In absentia credit are credits that students earn at other institutions that they can use towards the 120 credit Cornell graduation requirements.

A maximum of 15 credits of in absentia and advanced placement (AP) credits in total may be used towards Cornell graduation requirements.

Students need to fill out the In-Absentia petition form and to be reviewed by the Assistant Registrar. 

NOTE: Credits earned at Cornell approved study abroad programs, Cornell-in-Washington, Capital Semester, and Urban semester all count as Cornell credits.

If students fail to complete all of the requirements for a course by the end of a semester, there is the option to record a temporary grade of Incomplete, and then finish the course work in the near future.  The option of taking a grade of Incomplete is completely at the discretion of the course instructor.  It is typically used for situations where a significant health or personal issue prevents the student from completing a component of the course requirements.

The student will be e-mailed a copy of an incomplete form submitted by the instructor.  The form will present a detailed record of what work the student must complete, and the deadline. The required work must be completed within 12 months of the end of the semester, but shorter periods are encouraged.  After the work has been completed, the instructor must complete a Change of Grade form to change the grade from an INC.

Cornell students are permitted to take up to two semesters for a leave of absence during their course of study.  You may want to discuss a leave of absence with your faculty advisor.  When you have made a decision, you must arrange the details and take care of paperwork with College Admissions and a Career advisor.

Transferring within the College of Human Ecology is simply a matter of completing a Change Of Major form. 

Transferring between colleges at Cornell is more involved.  You must formally apply for admission into each college directly with the college you are interested in attending.  You should arrange to apply to other colleges directly with each respective admissions office.

If you are interested in transferring into PAM, you should set up a meeting with the PAM Director of Undergraduate Studies to plan an appropriate schedule.

Interested in the following?

  • Policy Analysis/Economics
  • Health Care Policy/ Management
  • Law and Regulation
  • Family and Social Welfare Policy
  • Applied Demographic Analysis
  • Education Policy
  • Business/Management
  • Law School
  • Medical School
  • PhD Economics
  • PhD/Masters Public Policy

Check out the suggested courses depending on career interest at the end of the current PAM curriculum sheet.

All undergraduate career services for Human Ecology are centralized in the Career Exploration Center.  At the Career Exploration Center you can develop life-long skills for choosing careers and managing effective job and internship searches, participate in On-Campus Recruiting Program via Cornell Handshake, and meet with a professional counselor (meetings arranged through 125 Academic Surge A).

You should make contact with the Career Exploration Center early in your Cornell tenure to find out about all of the programs and services.  

Informally, PAM will circulate to students any information that we have on internships and employment.  You should also discuss prospects and strategies with your PAM faculty advisor.