Rebecca Seguin

 

Rebecca Seguin

Associate Professor
412 Savage Hall
 
Phone: (607) 255-8250 Fax: (607) 254-1681
Email: rs946@cornell.edu
View Cornell University Contact Info
Curriculum Vitae
 
Biographical Statement:
I began my career as an exercise physiologist, first working in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation, and then developing individual and group programming for clients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, HIV, and multiple sclerosis.  I later completed my M.S. in Nutrition Communications and Ph.D. in Food Policy and Applied Nutrition.
 
Over the past decade, my work has focused on chronic disease prevention and public health. I am interested in behavioral theory, health communications, and the context in which people develop, change, and maintain health behaviors. In 2003, I co-developed a comprehensive curriculum and training program for implementing research-based programming for midlife and older women. To date, 3,000 health educators in 48 states have been trained to implement these community-based physical activity and nutrition programs in predominantly non-urban areas.  
 
My current research focuses on understanding how people’s social, food, and physical activity environments influence behavior over time—particularly in rural communities. I am also working on community mobilization and capacity building initiatives with health educators who serve rural areas. The goal is to provide training and evaluation tools to help them engage residents to become involved in programs and policies to improve their food and physical activity environments through collective action.

 
Current Professional Activities:

2012 - Present     Field Member, Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University

2012 - Present     Faculty Affiliate, Cornell Population Center, Cornell University

2011 - Present     Adjunct Assistant Professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University

2015 - 2018        Faculty Fellow, Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research, Cornell University

2015 - 2016        Kaplan Family Distinguished Faculty Fellow. Cornell University

 
Current Research Activities:

My current research focuses on community-based nutrition and physical activity interventions and dissemination research, particularly targeting rural and limited resource audiences. We are interested in understanding how people’s social, food, and physical activity environments influence health behaviors, overall quality of life, and health outcomes such as obesity and chronic disease. Much of our work involves community mobilization and capacity building initiatives with cooperative extension educators and other community leaders. We are also studying how CSA programs that target low-income families affect diet-related factors as well as the possible economic impact on small farmers.
 

 
Education:

2009-2011 NIH (NIA) T32 Postdoctoral Fellow, Group Health Research Institute. Seattle, WA.

2008 Ph.D. Food Policy and Applied Nutrition Tufts University Boston, MA

2004 M.S. Nutrition Communications Tufts University Boston, MA

1998 B.S. Clinical Exercise Physiology Boston University Boston, MA

 
Courses Taught:

2013 - 2017     NS 4010, Empirical Research (Independent Study) 

2015 - 2017     NS 7040, Grant Writing

2014 - 2016     NS 1600, Introduction to Public Health

2014 - 2016     NS 4030, Teaching Apprenticeship

 
Related Websites:

 http://rebeccaseguin.weebly.com/

 
Administrative Responsibilities:

- Faculty Search Committee (2014 - present)

- College of Human Ecology Dean’s Diversity Committee (2013 - present)

- Division of Nutritional Sciences Academic Affairs Committee (2013 - present)

 
Selected Publications:

Original Research

  1. Seguin RA, McGuirt JT, Jilcott Pitts SB, Garner J¥, Hanson KL, Kolodinsky J, Sitaker M, Knowledge and experience related to community supported agriculture and local foods among nutrition educators in three regions of the United States: a qualitative study. In review.
  2. Seguin RA, Paul L, Folta S, Nelson M, Graham M, Diffenderfer A. Eldridge G, Strogatz D, Parry S. The Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities multilevel cardiovascular disease risk reduction program: a randomized intervention trial. In review.
  3. Seguin RA, Sriram U¥, Connor LM, Silver AE, Niu B*, Bartholomew AN*. Encouraging Healthy Eating and Activity in Rural Towns: the HEART Club civic engagement project. In review.
  4. Perry C, McCalmont J, Ward J, Menelas HDK*, Jackson C, DeWitz J, Solanki E, Seguin RA. Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables: adaptation of the StrongWomen —Healthy Hearts Program for rural latinas using an intervention mapping approach. In review.
  5. McGuirt JT, Jilcott Pitts SB, Seguin RA, Bentley P, DeMarco M, Becot F, Ammerman AS. Perspectives on a local food access and nutrition education program from cooperative extension nutrition educators. In review.
  6. McGuirt JT, Jilcott Pitts SB, Hanson K, DeMarco M, Seguin RA, Kolodinsky J, Becot F, Ammerman AS. A choice experiment to examine factors influencing willingness to participate in a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program among low-income parents. In review.
  7. Seguin RA, Connor L, Howell O¥, Ward J. Perspectives from health educators trained to implement a health promotion program: Benefits and barriers to program adoption. In review.
  8. Michael YL, Allison MA, Burstyn I, De Roos A, Fujishiro K, Hou L, Nassir R, Robinson L, Seguin RA, Zaslavsky O, Wallace R, Wang C, Weitlauf J. Occupational physical activity and the risk of coronary heart disease in older women. In review.
  9. Hanson KL, Kolodinsky J, Wang W, Morgan EH^, Jilcott Pitts SB, Ammerman AS, Sitaker M, Seguin RAAdults and children in low-income households that participate in cost-offset community supported agriculture have high fruit and vegetable consumption. Nutrients. 2017;9(7):726. 
  10. Seguin RA, Lo B¥, Sriram U¥, Connor LM, Totta A*. Development and testing of a community audit tool: Inventories for Community Health Assessment in Rural Towns. Prev Med Rep. 2017;7:169-175. PMC: In Process. 
  11. Seguin RA, Morgan EH^, Hanson KL, Ammerman A, Jilcott Pitts SB, Kolodinsky J, Sitaker M, Becot FA, Connor LM, Garner JA, McGuirt JT. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK): An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:306. PMC: In Proces
  12. Seguin RA, Folta SC, Nelson ME, Hanson KL, LaCroix AZ. Long-term body weight maintenance among StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts program participants. J Environ Public Health. 2017;4372048. PMC5352895
  13. Bea JW, Thomson CA, Wallace RB, Wu C, Seguin RA, Going SB, LaCroix A, Eaton C, Ockene JK, LaMonte MJ, Jackson R, Jerry Mysiw W, Wactawski-Wende J. Changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and risk of falling: the Women’s Health Initiative observational study. Prev Med. 2017;95:103-109. PMC5289299
  14. Morgan EH^, Schoonees A, Faure M, Seguin RA. Caregiver involvement in interventions for improving children’s dietary intake and physical activity behaviors. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD012547. PMC4827235
  15. Kolodinsky JM, Sitaker M, Morgan EH^, Connor LM, Hanson KL, Becot F, Jilcott Pitts SB, Ammerman AS, Seguin RA. Can CSA cost-offset programs improve diet quality for limited resource families? Choices. 2017;32(1):1-10. PMC: In Process
  16. Sriram, U¥, Morgan EH^, Graham ML, Folta SC, Seguin RA. Support and sabotage: A qualitative study of social influences on health behaviors among rural adults. J Rural Health. 2017;12232. PMC: In Process
  17. Brown AGM, Hudson LB, Chui K, Metayer N, Lebron-Torres N, Seguin RA, Folta SC. Improving heart health among Black/African American women using civic engagement: a pilot study. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:112. PMC5259944
  18. Wanigatunga AA, Sourdet SS, LaMonte MJ, Waring ME, Nassir R, Garcia L, Bea JW, Seguin RA, Ockene JK, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Limacher M, Manini TM. Physical impairment and body weight history in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(17):3169–3177. PMC5135627
  19. Ruggeri D, Seguin RA. Impact of point of sale nutritional information and dietary and exercise habits of college students in Missouri. J Food Nutr Res. 2016;4(3):195-200. PMC: In Process
  20. Sriram U¥, LaCroix AZ, Barrington WE, Corbie-Smith G, Garcia L, Going SB, LaMonte MJ, Manson JE, Sealy-Jefferson S, Stefanick ML, Waring ME, Seguin RA. Neighborhood walkability and adiposity in the Women’s Health Initiative cohort. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(5):722-730. PMC5067165
  21. King AC, Winter SJ, Sheats J, Rosas LG, Buman MP, Salvo D, Rodriguez NM, Seguin RA, Moran M, Garber R, Broderick B, Zieff SG, Sarmiento OL, Gonzalez SA, Banchoff A, Dommarco JR. Leveraging citizen science and information technology for population physical activity promotion. Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. 2016;1(4):30-44. PMC4978140
  22. Morgan EH^, Graham ML, Folta SC, Seguin RA. A qualitative study of factors related to cardiometabolic risk in rural men. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:305. PMC4827235
  23. Foraker RE, Abdel-Rasoul M, Kuller LH, Jackson RD, Van Horn L, Seguin RA, Safford MM, Wallace RB, Kucharska-Newton AM, Robinson JG, Martin LW, Agha G, Hou L, Allen NB, Tindle HA. Cardiovascular health and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50(2):236-240. PMC4718741
  24. Woods NF, Rillamas-Sun E, Cochrane BB, La Croix AZ, Seeman TE, Tindle HA, Zaslavsky O, Bird CE, Johnson KC, Manson JE, Ockene JK, Seguin RA, Wallace RB. Aging well: observations from the Women’s Health Initiative Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S3-S12. PMC: In Process
  25. Stefanick ML, Brunner RL, Leng X, Limacher MC, Bird CE, Garcia DO, Hogan PE, LaMonte MJ, Mackey RH, Johnson KC, LaCroix A, Robinson JG, Seguin RA, Tindle HA, Wassertheil-Smoller S. The relationship of cardiovascular disease to physical functioning in women surviving to age 80 and over in the Women’s Health Initiative. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S42-S53. PMC: In Process
  26. Seguin RA, Eldridge G, Graham ML, Folta SC, Nelson ME, Strogatz D. Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities: a rural community-based cardiovascular disease prevention program. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:86. PMC4730587
  27. Seguin RA, Aggarwal A, Vermeylen F, Drewnowski A. Consumption frequency of foods away from home linked with higher body mass index and lower fruit and vegetable intake among adults: a cross-sectional study. J Environ Public Health. 2016;3074241. PMC4746344
  28. Folta SC, Seguin RA, Chui K, Clark V, Corbin MA, Goldberg JP, Heidkamp-Young E, Lichtenstein A, Wiker N, Nelson ME. National dissemination of the StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts Program: a community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women. Am J Public Health. 2015;05(12):2578-2585. PMC4638239
  29. Shrira A, Zaslavsky O, LaCroix AZ, Seguin RA, Post S, Tindle H, Hingle M, Woods N, Cochrane B, Garcia L, Schnall E, Rillamas-Sun E, Palgi Y. Global quality of life modifies terminal change in physical functioning among older adult women. Age Ageing. 2015;44(3):520-524. PMC4411222
  30. Seguin RA, Morgan EH^, Connor LM, Garner JA¥, King AC, Sheats JL, Winter SJ, Buman MP. Rural food and physical activity assessment using an electronic tablet-based application, New York, 2013-2014. Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:150147. PMC4492214
  31. Zaslavsky O, Palgi Y, Rillamas-Sun E, LaCroix AZ, Schnall E, Woods NF, Cochrane BB, Garcia L, Hingle M, Post S, Seguin RA, Tindle H, Shrira A. Dispositional optimism and terminal decline in global quality of life. Dev Psychol. 2015;51(6):856-863. PMC: In Process
  32. Vyas A, Rubenstein L, Robinson J, Seguin RA, Vitolins MZ, Kazlauskaite R, Shikany JM, Johnson KC, Snetselaar L, Wallace R. Diet drink consumption and the risk of cardiovascular events: a report from the Women’s Health Initiative. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(4):462-468. PMC4371001
  33. Folta SC, Lichtenstein AH, Seguin RA, Goldberg JP, Corbin MA, Wiker N, Gauker J, Chui K, Nelson ME. The StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts Program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis. Transl Behav Med. 2015;5(1):94-102. PMC433291
  34. Seguin RA, Connor LM, Nelson M, LaCroix A, Eldridge G. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities. J Nutr Metab. 2014;146502. PMC4276670
  35. Seguin RA, Folta SC, Sehlke M, Nelson M, Heidkamp-Young E, Fenton M, Junot B. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: engaging residents to catalyze positive change in food and physical activity environments. J Environ Public Health. 2014;162403. PMC4265724
  36. Zheng C, Beresford SA, Van Horn L, Tinker LF, Thomson CA, Neuhouser ML, Di C, Manson JE, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Seguin RA, Manini T, LaCroix AZ, Prentice RL. Simultaneous association of total energy consumption and activity-related energy expenditure with risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(5):526-535. PMC4143077
  37. Sitaker M, Kolodinsky J, Jilcott Pitts S, Seguin RA. Do entrepreneurial food systems innovations impact rural economies and health? Evidence and gaps. Am J of Entrepreneurship. 2014;7(2):4-22. PMC4657568
  38. Hingle MD, Wertheim BC, Tindle HA, Tinker L, Seguin RA, Rosal MC, Thomson CA. Optimism and diet quality in the Women’s Health Initiative. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(7):1036-1045. PMC4071123
  39. Aggarwal A, Cook AJ, Jiao J, Seguin RA, Vernez Moudon A, Hurvitz PM, Drewnowski A. Access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(5):917-923. PMC3987578
  40. Sternfeld B, Guthrie KA, Ensrud KE, LaCroix AZ, Larson JC, Dunn AL, Anderson GL, Seguin RA, Carpenter JS, Newton KM, Reed SD, Freeman EW, Cohen LS, Joffe H, Roberts M, Caan BJ. Efficacy of exercise for menopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2014;21(4):330-338. PMC3858421
  41. Manini TM, Lamonte MJ, Seguin RA, Manson JE, Hingle M, Garcia L, Stefanick ML, Rodriguez B, Sims S, Song Y, Limacher M. Modifying effect of obesity on the association between sitting and incident diabetes in post-menopausal women. Obesity. 2014;22(4):1133-1141. PMC3968183
  42. Reed SD, Guthrie KA, Newton KM, Anderson GL, Booth-LaForce C, Caan B, Carpenter JS, Cohen LS, Dunn AL, Ensrud KE, Freeman EW, Hunt JR, Joffe H, Larson JC, Learman LA, Rothenberg R, Seguin RA, Sherman KJ, Sternfeld BS, LaCroix AZ. Menopausal quality of life: RCT of yoga, exercise, and omega-3 supplements. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210(3):244.e1-244.e11. PMC3976276
  43. Seguin RA, Buchner DM, Liu J, Allison M, Manini T, Wang CY, Manson JE, Messina CR, Patel MJ, Moreland L, Stefanick ML, Lacroix AZ. Sedentary behavior and mortality in older women: the Women's Health Initiative. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(2):122-135. PMC3896923
  44. Schneider KL, Andrews C, Hovey KM, Seguin RA, Manini T, Lamonte MJ, Margolis KL, Waring ME, Ning Y, Sims S, Ma Y, Ockene J, Stefanick ML, Pagoto SL. Change in physical activity after a diabetes diagnosis: opportunity for intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(1):84-91. PMC4028702
  45. Rillamas-Sun E, LaCroix AZ, Waring ME, Kroenke CH, LaMonte MJ, Vitolins MZ, Seguin RA, Bell CL, Gass M, Manini TM, Masaki KH, Wallace RB. Obesity and late-age survival without major disease or disability in older women. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(1):98-106. PMC3963496
  46. Seguin RA, Eldridge G, Lynch W, Paul LC. Strength training improves body image and physical activity behaviors among midlife and older rural women. J Extension. 2013;51(4):4FEA2. PMC4354895
  47. Sims ST, Kubo J, Desai M, Bea J, Beasley JM, Manson JE, Allison M, Seguin RA, Chen Z, Michael YL, Sullivan SD, Beresford S, Stefanick ML. Changes in physical activity and body composition in postmenopausal women over time. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(8):1486-1492. PMC3715578
  48. Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Tinker LF, Huang Y, Neuhouser ML, McCann SE, Seguin RA, Vitolins MZ, Curb JD, Prentice RL. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative. Nutr J. 2013;12(63). PMC3658913
  49. Neuhouser ML, Di C, Tinker LF, Thomson C, Sternfeld B, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Stefanick ML, Sims S, Curb JD, Lamonte M, Seguin RA, Johnson KC, Prentice RL. Physical activity assessment: biomarkers and self-report of activity-related energy expenditure in the WHI. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):576-585. PMC3626043
  50. LaCroix AZ, Freeman EW, Larson J, Carpenter JS, Joffe H, Reed SD, Newton KM, Seguin RA, Sternfeld B, Cohen L, Ensrud KE. Effects of escitalopram on menopause-specific quality of life and pain in healthy menopausal women with hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial. Maturitas. 2012;73(4):361-368. PMC3645479
  51. Woods NF, Cochrane BB, LaCroix AZ, Seguin RA, Zaslavsky O, Liu J, Beasley JM, Brunner RL, Espeland MA, Goveas JS, Lane DS, Manson JE, Mouton CP, Robinson JG, Tinker LF. Toward a positive aging phenotype for older women: observations from the Women’s Health Initiative. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012;67(11):1191-1196. PMC3667695
  52. Folta SC, Seguin RA, Ackerman J, Nelson ME. A qualitative study of leadership characteristics among women who catalyze positive community change. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:383. PMC3406954
  53. Seguin RA, LaMonte M, Tinker L, Liu J, Woods N, Michael YL, Bushnell C, LaCroix AZ. Sedentary behavior and physical function decline in older women: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative. J Aging Res. 2012;271589. PMC3364591
  54. Reed SD, Guthrie KA, Joffe H, Shifren JL, Seguin RA, Freeman EW. Sexual function in nondepressed women using escitalopram for vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(3):527-538. PMC3345186
  55. Seguin RA, Heidkamp-Young E, Kuder J, Nelson ME. Improved physical fitness among older female participants in a nationally disseminated, community-based exercise program. Health Educ Behav. 2012;39(2):183-190. PMC3727397
  56. Michael YL, Smit E, Seguin RA, Curb JD, Phillips LS, Manson JE. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and physical performance in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health. 2011;20(11):1603-1608. PMC3216069
  57. Seguin RA, Economos CD, Palombo R, Hyatt R, Kuder J, Nelson ME. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence. J Aging Phys Act. 2010;18(2):201-218. PMC4308058
  58. Folta SC, Lichtenstein AH, Seguin RA, Goldberg JP, Kuder JF, Nelson ME. The StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts Program: reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural sedentary, overweight, and obese midlife and older women. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(7):1271-1277. PMC2696662
  59. Seguin RA, Palombo R, Economos CD, Hyatt R, Kuder J, Nelson ME. Factors related to leader implementation of a nationally disseminated community-based exercise program: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:62. PMC2614422
  60. Seguin RA, Economos CD, Hyatt R, Palombo R, Reed PN, Nelson ME. Design and national dissemination of the StrongWomen Community Strength Training Program. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(1):A25. PMC2248774
  61. Folta SC, Goldberg JP, Lichtenstein AH, Seguin RA, Reed PN, Nelson, ME. Factors related to cardiovascular disease risk reduction in midlife and older women: a qualitative study. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(1):A06. PMC2248795
  62. Nelson ME, Seguin RA. Targeted exercise for promoting bone health in women. American Journal of Medicine and Sports. 2004;6(2):92-96.
  63. Seguin RA, Nelson ME. The benefits of strength training for older adults. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25(3Sii):141-149.

^ Post-doctoral mentee; ¥ Graduate student mentee; * Undergraduate mentee

Scholarly Review Articles

1.   Seguin RA, Nelson ME. Physical activity: a key to wellness throughout the ages. Nutrition Updates. 2002:11.

2.   Seguin RA. Clinical Tool: Benefits of strength training for older adults, with physician and patient handouts. Nutrition in Clinical Care. 2002:5(3).

3.   Seguin RA, Nelson ME. In the Literature: Epidemiology of sarcopenia. Nutrition in Clinical Care. 2000:3(6).

4.   Seguin RA, Nelson, ME. Practical Review: The role of exercise on bone health. Nutrition in Clinical Care. 2000:3(3).

5.   Seguin RA, Nelson ME. In the Literature: Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate may reduce bone mineral density. Nutrition in Clinical Care. 2000:3(2).

Curricula

1.   Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids. Cornell University, 128 pages, 2016.

2.   Mujeres Fuertes, Corazones Saludables (StrongWomen, Healthy Hearts). Oregon Health Sciences University, 463 pages, 2016.

3.   Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities. Cornell University, Montana State University Extension, and Tufts University, 632 pages, 2015.

4.   Strong Hearts, Healthy Women. Cornell University, Montana State University Extension, and Tufts University, 91 pages, 2015.

5.   The HEART Club: Encouraging Healthy Eating and Activity in Rural Towns through Civic Engagment. Cornell University, 58 pages, 2014.

6.   The Change Club—Healthy Hearts Program (Adaptation For Black/African American Women): A Civic Engagement Program to Catalyze Resident-Led Community Changes that Support Healthy Living. Cornell University and Tufts University, 74 pages, 2013. 

7.   StrongWomen Strength Training Program Guide: Training Tips and Exercise Modifications Guidelines. Cornell University and Montana State University, 30 pages, 2012.

8.   The StrongWomen Booster Pack: Additional Exercises for your StrongWomen Programs. Cornell University and Tufts University, 71 pages, 2011.

9.   The Change Club: A Civic Engagement Program to Catalyze Resident-Led Community Changes that Support Healthy Living. Cornell University and Tufts University, 62 pages, 2011. 

10. The StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts Program and Weight Management Tool Kit: A Program Leader’s Guide to Conducting Physical Activity and Nutrition Programs for Women. Tufts University, 576 pages, 2008.

11.  The StrongWomen Tool Kit: A Program Leader’s Guide to Conducting Strength Training Programs for Women. Tufts University, 189 pages, 2003.

-          Website: http://strongwomen.org/

 
Selected Keywords:
nutrition, physical activity, aging, women's health, food access, built environment, community-based research, obesity, chronic disease, public health, rural health

 
The information on this bio page is taken from the CHE Annual Report.